For some Christians, tension exists between the personal and social implications of the gospel. This tension prompts us to wonder where the church’s focus should be. Additionally, the constellation of large-scale crises we are facing (e.g. global pandemic, climate change, racial injustice, housing affordability, etc.) has led some to question the role of their faith and the church in engaging these critical issues. At the same time, many North American Christians are reevaluating some of the historical emphases of North American evangelicalism. An avalanche of literature is being published from inside and outside the evangelical world offering pointed and well-researched critiques of this Christian tradition that has been exported all over the world (see list of recent publications). Many are also leaving evangelical communities as evidenced by the rise of the #Exvangelical and #LEAVELOUD hashtags.

In response to the questions that have been surfacing both inside and outside Cedar Park Church, we created and ran a study series in May 2021 called Losing our Focus? which is based on a series of essays written by Pastor Lee Kosa. This series examines how we understand the Christian life (i.e., discipleship, salvation, worship, evangelism, social justice), the history of evangelicalism, and what shifts might be necessary for the church to make in order to follow Jesus more faithfully in our time.

The essays below can be read as an individual or as a group. Each essay concludes with a few questions to prompt reflection and discussion.

All Essays

View all five essays in one shared google doc or download a pdf from the links below.

I. Introduction & A Short History

Essay 1 offers an introduction to the five-part series and traces the history of evangelicalism – a Christian movement that has shaped how millions of Christians understand the Christian life. This essay is the most academic of the five. Although it may not be the most entertaining read, the history that is presented is important for us to understand as we seek to faithfully follow Jesus today. Don’t worry, after this week, there are more stories! Essay I is found on pages 3-36 (24 min. read).

essay I – Further Resources

Heart Religion: Christian Belief and the Process of Introversion (40 min. read)
This paper by Mike Simpson examines the philosophical and societal pressures that led to the interiorization of Christianity for many Protestants around the world. The essay starts on page 26.

Excerpt from The Great Reversal: Reconciling Evangelism and Social Concern (4 min. read)
In this excerpt from his book The Great Reversal, evangelical sociologist David Moberg suggests that evangelicals have often tended to respond to social issues with suspicion. In this passage, Moberg describes a typical pattern of judgment, inaction, followed by eventual engagement.

Issues with the Evangelical Salvation Model (4 min. video)
In this interview excerpt (taking place at Regent College), Stanley Hauerwas discusses a problem with the evangelical (Romans Road) salvation model, as well as tent revivals. The problems Hauerwas discusses are the lack of a cosmic element in evangelical salvation models, as well as a lack of recognition that it is a theological achievement to recognize sin. Thus, putting conviction of sin so strictly before the work of salvation may be problematic.

White Evangelicals After Trump: What Now? (5 min. read)
In this short essay, Diana Butler Bass points out that white evangelicals have become, “a new cultural villain, scapegoats responsible for our national ills.” However, Bass’s nuanced comments claim that white American evangelicalism can look to its past to find expressions of evangelicalism that were more liberating and egalitarian as it seeks to find a better way forward after Trump.

Suggested Books
Worship is a Verb by Robert Webber
You Are What You Love by James K.A. Smith
Liturgy of the Ordinary by Tish Warren
Every Moment Holy by Doug McKelvey

II. The Helpful

Many Christians around the world frame the Christian life in terms of having a personal relationship with God. Although this limited frame does not represent the totality of what it means to be Christian, it does centre certain vital aspects of the Christian life. Essay II acknowledges the helpfulness of this frame and celebrates the goodness of that which falls within it. Essay II is found on pages 27-38 (13 min. read).

ESSAY II – Additional Resources

Suggested Books

Streams of Living Water: Essential Practices from the Six Great Traditions of Christian Faith by Richard J. Foster

Foster examines the streams of living water” – the six dimensions of faith and practice that define Christian tradition. He lifts up the enduring character of each tradition (contemplative, holiness, charismatic, social justice, evangelical, incarnational) and shows how a variety of practices, from individual study and retreat to disciplines of service and community, are all essential elements of growth and maturity. Foster examines the unique contributions of each of these traditions and offers as examples the inspiring stories of faithful people whose lives defined each of these streams.”

A Spiritual Formation Workbook: Small Group Resources for Nurturing Christian Growth by James Bryan Smith, Lynda L. Graybeal

This workbook features guidelines for starting a group, study group based on Richard Foster’s book Streams of Living Water. Based upon the six major dimensions of the spiritual life found in the life of Christ and Christian tradition, this workbook program provides all the necessary ingredients to start and maintain a Spiritual Formation Group.


III. The Limitations

This essay attempts to show that when the personal relationship frame is believed to be the only legitimate way to view the Christian life, it offers a limited picture of what it means to follow Jesus. Essay III is found on pages 39-66 (30 min. read).

Essay III – Additional Resources

Personal Sin & Social Sin (9 min. read)
This short essay by Lee Kosa explains the difference between personal and social sin. While many contemporary North American evangelicals understand and focus on personal sin, less are familiar with the biblical concept of social sin. Our understanding of the Christian life affects our understanding of sin and how we think Christians should respond to sin and its harmful consequences in the world.

A Biblical and Theological Account of Systemic Racism (23 min. video)
Dr. Esau McCaulley is an assistant professor of New Testament at Wheaton College. In this talk, he explains how the Bible describes sin as an individual heart problem and a corporate problem. He also explores how corporate sin manifests in corporate structures. See also his opinion piece in the N.Y. Times entitled: “Why Christians Must Fight Systemic Racism.

Sermon on Corporate Sin (38 min. sermon)
In this sermon, Tim McCarthy of North Langley Community Church shares what he has learned about the often ignored concept of corporate sin. This message touches on reconciliation, corporate confession, and systemic sin.

Footprints (4 min. read)
This short reflection by Lee Kosa looks at how the popular poem “Footprints” shapes our Christian imagination and offers another poem that expands our vision of the Christian life.


IV. The Harm

When the personal relationship frame is treated as the best or the only legitimate way to view the Christian life, it not only offers a limited and rigid picture of what it means to follow Jesus, but it can foster arrogance and cause great harm. Essay IV is found on pages 67-81 (15 min. read).

ESSAY IV – Additional Resources

Guest Speaker
The guest speaker for Session IV was a clinical counsellor and psychotherapist who specializes in working with trauma. An audio recording of their presentation on spiritual trauma is available upon request.

Allender Center at the Seattle School – Podcast
Dr. Dan Allender is a pioneer of a unique and innovative approach to trauma and abuse therapy. In this podcast Dr. Allender along with Rachael Clinton Chen discuss the particulars of spiritual abuse.

Suggested Books
Pure: Inside the Evangelical Movement That Shamed a Generation of Young Women and How I Broke Free by Linda Kay Klein
The Body keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma by Bessel Van Der Kolk
Waking the Tiger: Healing Trauma by Peter Levine


V. Reframe

This final essay offers an invitation to expand our framework of the Christian life, not as a capitulation to culture or to a theological fad, but as a response to the additive and life-giving work of the Spirit in the world. Essay V is found on pages 82-91 (11 min. read).

ESSAY V – Additional Resources

Shame and Accountability – Podcast by Brené Brown
Dr. Brené Brown shares her thoughts about why accountability is a prerequisite for change, and why we need to get our heads and hearts around the difference between being held accountable for things that are wrong and feeling shame and being shamed. Brown shares her personal stories of being held accountable when it comes to racism and holding herself accountable, as well as her strategies for pulling our “thinking brain” back online when we are experiencing the flight and fight energy fueled by shame. Although Brown’s comments relate to racism, they are also applicable when it comes to learning how to recognize and deal with feelings of shame that we experience when we perceive part of our identity is being critiqued.

Suggested Books

When Everything is On Fire: Faith Forged from the Ashes by Brian Zahnd

Intellectual certainty has long been a cornerstone of the Christian faith. But in an age of secularism, skepticism, and cynicism, our worldviews have been shaken. Various solutions exist―some double down on certainty, while others deconstruct their faith until there is nothing left at all. But Brian Zahnd offers a third way: what is needed is not a demolition but instead a renovation of faith.

Written with personal and pastoral experience, Zahnd extends an invitation to move beyond the crisis of faith toward the journey of reconstruction. As the world rapidly changes in ways that feel incompatible with Christianity, When Everything’s on Fire provides much-needed hope. A stronger, more confident faith is possible when it is grounded in the beauty and truth of Christ. Zahnd permits us to risk the journey of deconstruction so that God can forge something more beautiful in its place.


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